Historical Background for "Where the Deer Ran"
Cherokee Nation Timeline
1450 - Cherokee migrate from northwestern to what is now southeastern United States.
1540 - DeSoto becomes first white to see Cherokee tribe.
1650 - Cherokee Nation encompasses more than 40,000 square miles in Southern Appalachia. Population estimated at 22,500.
1710 - Cherokees begin trade with whites settlers
1773 - Cherokees sign Treaty of Augusta ceding 2,000,000 acres of Cherokee land in Georgia to relieve indebtedness to white settlers.
1776 -1783 - Fearing encroachment, Cherokee side with British during American Revolution.
1791 - Treaty of Holston: President Washington agrees that Americans must obtain passports to enter Cherokee lands. Cherokee granted right to evict settlers. In exchange, Cherokee cede land in eastern Tennessee.
1802 - Thomas Jefferson, in State of Nation Address, commits United States to the work of settling and "marking boundaries" for Indians, thereby initiating removal policy.
1805-1832--Land Lotteries divide Cherokee territory among whites.
1821 - Sequoyah develops Cherokee alphabet.
1828 - Cherokee Nation adopts written Constitution. Publication of first Indian newspaper, Cherokee Phoenix.
Andrew Jackson elected President. Carries Southern states with pro- Indian removal platform
1830 - Gold discovered on Cherokee land in western Georgia.
Congress passes Indian Removal Act. Jackson claims Removal Act will replace "savage hunters" with "civilized population." Greater than 90% of Cherokee Nation can read and write, and they are an agrarian society.
1831 - Cherokee Nation vs. Supreme Court filed to protest Cherokee Removal Act. Supreme Court refuses to hear case on basis that Cherokee are not a "sovereign nation."
1832 - In Worcester v. Georgia, Supreme Court rules Cherokee Nation is sovereign. Georgia has no jurisdiction over Cherokee nor claim to Cherokee lands. Removal Law invalid and illegal. Jackson realizes he must have agreement of Cherokee to proceed with removal. Authorized payments of $2,000 per individual to influence Cherokee to sign removal treaty.
1835 - Treaty of New Echota signed; Cherokee agree to removal.
Major Ridge, his son John, and Elias Boudinot lead faction who sign treaty.
Chief John Ross, who opposes treaty, is under house arrest at time for unspecified charges.
Chief John Ross gathers 16.000 signatures of those who oppose removal treaty. United States Senate ratifies Treaty of New Echota.
1838 - 15,000 Cherokee gathered into forts, their homes plundered and burned. A few hundred Cherokee escape to mountains.
1839 - Major Ridge, John Ridge, Elias Boudinot assassinated.
1838-39 - 4,000 Cherokee die on "Trail of Tears" as they are forced to march 1,200 miles through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas.
1990- U.S. Congress authorizes Cherokee Nation to prepare and administer programs and receive direct funding. Cherokee granted self- government and independence.
2001- Cherokee Nation has more than 200,000 tribal members and assets including 66,000 acres of land and 96 miles of the Arkansas Riverbed. Fort Hetzel Cherokee Removal Site East Ellijay, Georgia
Where the Deer Ran: an Original Historical Drama a pdf document (Acrobat Reader needed for viewing)
by Adam Russell
New Echota Historic Site Virtual Toura PowerPoint presentation (PowerPoint viewer required for viewing)
by Stacie Janecki (KSU Honors Student)
Reclaiming Displaced Heritages: An Annotated Bibliography
by Leslie Walker and Rozlyn Truss
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